Salman Rashid

Travel writer, Fellow of Royal Geographical Society

The Trees of Lahore

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Until the 1970s some one hindered and sixty species of birds were listed in Lahore. While the city had such green spaces as Lawrence Gardens, Aitchison College, the cantonment and Model Town, farm and forest on the outskirts began where Defence Society or Allama Iqbal Town and the innumerable societies now sprawl in south and east Lahore. Also, houses along main thoroughfares were constructed on plots of four or five thousand square yards or more, giving every residence a large garden with trees, shrubbery and flowers.
The conversion of suburban farm, forest and scrub land to housing estates led to large scale deforestation. Over the years it was observed that not just government agencies, but private developers as well as individual home owners are clearly repulsed by trees. The first thing anyone does is remove the forest cover, even when the trees do not get in the way of construction. Wherever indigenous forest was destroyed, the grid of new roads was bordered with eucalyptus.

With the development of these housing estates and soaring real estate prices, the standard plot size was reduced to 500 square yards. Most of the palatial homes (save those in Gulberg) were evacuee property taken over after partition and because Pakistan of the 1950s through the 80s was a country of single generation riches, the properties began to be divided as the families grew. The homes and gardens of Model Town and Gulberg were progressively cut up into smaller and smaller plots. The tree-shaded bungalows of downtown roads like Temple, Abbott and Davies were demolished to make way for high-rises. Nowhere was an effort made to save so much as a single tree.

The house with the garden was no more. Now people lived in blockhouses covering the entire plot save the thin sliver that had to be left unpaved by law. There was no more room for the spreading neem or pipal in the matchbox garden that was now the norm. The 1980s saw PIA air crews bringing home all sorts of exotic plants from the Far East. Though restricted under law, customs officials connived while those of the Plant Protection Department that controls import of exotic species remained spectacularly negligent. The activity went on unchecked, flooding the country with useless species of ornamental flora. This was in tune with the requirements of the new matchbox gardens and ignorant homeowners lapped up the supply.

With the diminishing forest cover of Lahore, birdlife began to disappear. Red avadavats, munias, Tickell’s and Paradise flycatchers so common in Gulberg and Shadman were the first to go. Golden orioles, those elusive streaks of black and gold, flashing among the foliage on Davies Road and The Mall were restricted to Canal Bank south of the Punjab University. And this is to name only a few species to permanently migrate away from Lahore.

Now, even twenty years before all this started to happen, self-serving foresters had begun to plunder the ecology of Lahore – indeed of the rest of the country as well. Pressured by their political masters to increase forest cover, they went for the one sapling that had a hundred percent survival rate. With help from an Australian botanist, Dr Prior by name, the Forest Department raped Pakistan with six of the six hundred sub-species of the water-guzzling eucalyptus. Since birds and animals kept away from this alien species, it grew where the survival of indigenous saplings was limited to about thirty percent.

Consequently, from about 1960 onwards, from Jivani in the south of Balochistan to Chor in the Thar Desert to the mountains of northern Pakistan, only eucalyptus was planted. New localities like Township in Lahore where a huge swathe of the historic Lakhi Forest was cleared to make way for roads and housing, was replanted with this new darling of the Forest Department. Simultaneously, there was an aggressive campaign to promote this alien tree. It continued to 2005 when the Punjab government banned its plantation – for the second time. Undaunted rogue Forest Department officials still encourage it.

Now, in the past, urban forestry was the responsibility of the Forest Department. In the 1980s Lahore Development Authority (LDA) raised an in-house Parks and Horticulture Department and entrusted it with the task of giving Lahore its green canopy. Since it was managed by ignorant low level bureaucrats, never by a specialist who understood the word ‘ecology’, Lahore now began to be destroyed full time. Wherever an indigenous tree was lost, the replacement was an exotic shrub.

In the late 1990s, a self-serving and glib mandarin well-versed in the arts of slick talk and sycophancy, out of favour with the government of the time, already having blighted a part of Lahore with date palms in place of old spreading mango trees, saw his chance. To the Chief Minister, Punjab, he presented the idea of turning Lahore into a garden so that he may be remembered as a second Shah Jehan. And so it was that the department within LDA became a separate Parks and Horticulture Authority under the glib one as its first Director General.

The man may have known about flowerbeds, but he hadn’t the faintest clue about ecology. As is the norm in this benighted land, he was followed by a procession of general duty bureaucrats, utterly uneducated in matters of environment, who enacted a sordid game of corruption coupled with the wholesale destruction of the Lahore’s ecology.

Now, in a country where the words ‘environment’ and ‘pollution’ continue to remain beyond the comprehension of politicians and the bureaucracy (both civil and military), a holistic understanding of ecology is still wanting. First of all, none of the mandarins who steered the sullied ship of PHA understand that trees are sinks that sequester atmospheric carbon to control global warming. That the larger the bio-mass of a tree the more carbon it will hold is simply beyond their grasp. Consequently, when the tons of bio-mass of a mature banyan or pipal is destroyed, the replacement is a shrub.

Those who do favour trees are singularly incapable of understanding that ecology can only be kept in order with indigenous species of flora. Devoid of the capacity to commune with nature, they do not realise that alstonia, another alien to Punjab and now a favourite, is fastidiously shunned by all bird species. Even after years of it becoming a familiar sight in Lahore, not a single alstonia has ever harboured a roosting leave alone a nesting bird. But for the babus of PHA, this is just specie with which to replace the city’s indigenous trees.

In 1980 yet another bane struck Lahore. A young man with connections to the dictator through his politician mother became ‘Horticulturist by Appointment to the President.’ Beginning with a free run of the President’s House in Islamabad which he, needless to say, destroyed ecologically, he added another nail to the coffin of Lahore’s ecology. Without any education in the field, the man a landscape artist promoting only exotic species in the city. Needless to say that this was accomplished at considerable fiscal profit to the man.

Though he seems to have grown intellectually and has done some good work in a couple of housing estates in south Lahore, he admits that as a landscape designer, his earning comes from promoting expensive and exotic flora. ‘I cannot possibly sell a neem for Rs 1000 when everyone knows they can have it from a good nursery for a couple of rupees,’ he says. He admits that he is guilty, together with PHA, of promoting exotic species to the detriment of indigenous ones for the huge profits to be raked in.

Thirty years of brainwashing by persons with no specialised training and no understanding of ecology masquerading as environmental engineers, has led to a near catastrophe. On the one hand, indigenous trees have lost out to exotic ones. On the other, the total carbon-sequestering bio-mass of Lahore is now only a fraction of what it was in, say, 1975.

In its twelve years, PHA has remained a den of sleaze and incompetence with only a couple of very short clean interludes. (The sordid tale of PHA and the multi-million rupee-annual hidden income of its incumbents is a separate mind-blowing story). The current director general, another general duty bureaucrat, is choking Lahore with thousands of ficus and the kulfi tree called Asoka. So far as this man is concerned, no other tree exists. The greatest eyesore yet created by this man’s ignorance is the vast open space in front of Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore. The list does not end here, however.

Choc-a-bloc with all sorts of exotic dwarf palm trees and shrubbery what could have been a delightful sylvan retreat promises to be a shadeless hell in the blistering heat of the Lahori summer. The standard argument trotted out will be that the danger of bird hit precludes the planting of large trees in this spot. This holds no water because the distance between the hundreds of trees in the cantonment and the old runway is about the same as the distance on this side.

A PHA insider reveals that working on the Arain clan network, the DG is directly making wholesale procurements of ficus and Asoka from an Arain-owned nursery in Pattoki outside Lahore. The man claims to have cut down on expense by removing the middleman, but allegations about his own fiscal misdemeanour run rife in the corridors of PHA. Despite repeated attempts to contact him, Abdul Jabbar Shaheen remained out of reach, however.

Meanwhile, the nursery operated by the Forest Department in Ravi Road, Lahore is a lonely place. With thousands of saplings of over two dozen indigenous species of trees sold for no more than two rupees a piece, the nursery is unknown to the people of Lahore. With freelance landscape (con) artists and pseudo horticulturists promoting all sorts of exotic rubbish in place of the trees of Punjab, a whole new mindset has emerged. A day will come when the children of Lahore will not know what a pipal or a neem looked like. The same way as they today do not know what a firefly is.

A retired judge, resident of Judicial Colony in south Lahore, commented on the absence of birdsong in his locality. When told that it was because of the forest of non-local species that grows in his estate, he was nonplussed. Despite being pressed to get the management of the colony to phase out the alien and bring back the indigenous, he has done nothing. He only laments that there is no birdsong.

With every prejudice against nature, we have turned Lahore green, but it is a green desert. It is a desert where few birds sing and which does nothing positive for the overall ecology of the city and the country. We have to be thankful that this land was once ruled over by the Brits who planted The Mall, Lawrence Gardens and the cantonment and that there were good Hindu and Sikhs who gave us Model Town. These are the only places in Lahore today where a bird watcher can find woodpeckers and hornbills.

The beautiful mating song of the red avadavat, the mellifluous whistle of the golden oriole, the eerie call of the spotted owlet, the incredibly soft yet crowded orchestra of a single chiffchaff are gone. We do not realise, but we are the poorer for the loss of birdsong. One day, we the people of Lahore, will die from this resulting loneliness of the soul in a landscape ravaged by a desert of exotic greenery.

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posted by Salman Rashid @ 00:00,


At 30 April 2013 at 13:11, Anonymous Umer Jamshed said...

I had been missing your writings on Express Tribune blog until I found this blog last night. Brilliant piece of writing. In deed, ours is a sorry state of affairs.

At 2 May 2013 at 14:14, Anonymous Umer Jamshed on facebook said...

A day will come when the children of Lahore will not know what a pipal or a neem looked like. The same way as they today do not know what a firefly is.

At 4 May 2013 at 12:40, Anonymous Salman Rashid said...

Umer Jamshed, you have hit the nail on the head. We do not know the beauty of fireflies on a dark night. We in Lahore have forgotten the call of the koel, the sweet song of the golden oriole and the whirring flight of the hornbill. We are the real losers of this earth.

At 18 August 2013 at 02:43, Anonymous Anonymous said...

your views in tree of lahore are only for criticise and with no solution pls give some suggestion for future , it is very easy what you have written which may not be correct zafar ahmad lahore

At 12 January 2014 at 10:28, Blogger Unknown said...

Very Well written and a valid criticism too. Someone like me who has returned to Lahore after 13 Years the overall landscape of Lahore is extremely different. No wonder we feel the summers are getting hotter while the mercury remains the same as it did 15- 20 years when I was school kid. There needs to be a society for safeguard of the existing trees and we need to mobilize the Civil Society of Lahore which is extremely active for a meaningful impact on the horticulture of Lahore.
by Arif Hussain Nomani (

At 15 January 2014 at 16:20, Anonymous Salman Rashid said...

Thank you, Arif Nomani. You make a valid observation about the lack of shade. The megalith of idiotic bureaucracy is so difficult to move. If it had been any different, my repeated raving would have changed something.

At 31 May 2016 at 18:21, Anonymous Anonymous said...

It is true - most children today have not seen a firefly, or a sparrow for that matter.Here in Indian Punjab, the same kind of idiots are in charge - palm trees are their favourites. Reminds them of Dubai,they say. Well why not move to the frigging desert,rather than bringing it here.

Anyhow,could you suggest some native trees and shrubs of Punjab that would be suitable to be planted on road dividers? Please do mention the Punjabi names of trees,along with the scientific ones,if you can.I can't seem to find the Punjabi name of the Indian Coral Tree. Thanks

At 3 June 2016 at 10:30, Anonymous Salman Rashid said...

Dear Anonymous, there are virtually hundreds of species of native trees and shrubs that can be grown on road dividers. For wide ones I still say the pipal is the best for it shades road users. But I would suggest you seek out a good botanist/horticulturist and heed their advice. As we have some few who are not listened to, I am certain you too have some good men and women in India.

At 25 August 2016 at 13:06, Anonymous Amal Farhaan said...

Came upon these archives of yours..Thank God! You are a life saver for all those moments when I cant find anything decent to read.
Talking of trees, I planted in my house , when it was being built, a Jaman, an Amaltas (my absolute fav) a curry pata tree(as I am of south Indian extraction) in addition to the sheesham, neem, banana and lemon trees planted by my mother in law previously.Also had bougainvillea and honeysuckle creepers on the walls.
Needless to say, so many years down the line, my house is practically smothered by these beautiful trees, and I wake up every morning to bird song. I HATE the sight of these so called Islamic trees..the palm..which is being planted on all the road medians and in some houses too. The climate this far north is not very conducive to their well being, yet they keep on coming.
Will common sense ever prevail?

At 25 August 2016 at 13:17, Anonymous Amal Farhaan said...

Came across your archives a while back. You are a God Send.
Talking of trees, when we were making our house, I planted a Jaman, an Amaltas (my absolute fav. tree) a curry pata tree(as I am of South Indian lineage and put it in cooking)in addition to the Sheesham, lemon & Banana plants, put in by my mother in law many years previously. The walls have bougainvillea and honeysuckle clambering over them. Needless to say, so many years down the line, our house is practically smothered by all these beautiful trees and vegetation.
I hate these palm trees that are being planted on all the road medians and in some houses too. Poor things, the weather isnt very conducive to their well being either, this far North.
Wonder when, if ever, common sense will prevail

At 25 August 2016 at 14:31, Anonymous Amal Farhaan said...

Oops! Sorry. posted a comment twice.

At 29 August 2016 at 10:48, Anonymous Salman Rashid said...

Amal Farhan, As long as we have Kamran Lasharis and babus of the Forest Department ruled over by Gen Duty bureaucrats pretending to be experts. We are stuck with a rape of our ecology.

At 5 April 2018 at 12:44, Blogger Haroon Rashid said...

Where are mahua trees found in Lahore? I have spotted a few on Canal Road. Mahua flowers are used as a bait for fishing.

At 5 April 2018 at 12:53, Blogger Salman Rashid said...

Haroon Rashid, besides the canal, Mahua trees can be found in Lawrence Garden. Sadly no one now plants this beautiful tree.

At 4 May 2019 at 08:28, Blogger Unknown said...

Salam Salman
I had planted a tree in my house in Lahore. You will be familiar with it I'm hoping. As I do not know its botanical name.
I would like to describe it as 7 leafes originating from a stalk. It can grow to a height of 20 feet +. It flowers aswell with a very appreciable fragrance seasonally.
It is very very common in Lahore and other cities of Punjab. My particular question is in the past few years it has developed some sort of disease that mainly is affecting its leaves with kind of round nodules outgrowth on the leaves rendering the leaves to deform. Any ideas what that may be. It is obvious its some sort of plant disease. Are you aware of any remedy for this pathology of the plant and what the disease may means how to get rid of it
Please let me know . I really have concerns in this regard. I don't want the tree to die prematurly.its taken an aural long time for it to grow it's full height. It will be a sorrow to not benefit from its shade and pleasure it provides .I will put my local Pak mobile for you to call me and let me have your recommendations or a link or a lead to pursue the matter further if we can not conclude it here.
Kind regards
Habib Babar Qazi
0331 484 2298
Email :


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Deosai: Land of the Gaint - New

The Apricot Road to Yarkand

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Sea Monsters and the Sun God: Travels in Pakistan

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Prisoner on a Bus: Travel Through Pakistan

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